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Statistics Primer
There are a lot of acronyms and statistics on this site that may seem confusing at first. You can find all the measurements used on Basketball State below in alphabetical order, with a short description and links to external sources where applicable.

Basketball State makes heavy use of "tempo-free stats." Perhaps "possession-based" is a more apt term, as they all use the possession as their cornerstone. Standard statistics use per-game averages. Even though games sometimes go into overtime, the possession provides a more consistent apples-to-apples basis of measurement. These stats are highlighted in blue in the list below.

What's a good number? Some of the more obscure stats below have shaded bars below their descriptions, which show the best, worst and average in those statistics for the 2012-13 season.

A, AST - Assists.

A/B%, A/B - Assisted Basket Percentage. Percentage of field goals made that are assisted.

Best: Wyoming (72.0%)   Worst: Howard (34.8%)   National Average: 52.9%

Ast Rt - Assist rate. An estimate of the percentage of field goals a player assisted while on the floor. Formula: AST / ((Min * TeamFG) - FG) Read more here.

A/TO, A-TO - Assists to Turnover Ratio.

ASM - Average Scoring Margin. The total scoring margin of all games played in a season, divided by the number of games.

Blk - Blocks.

Blk Rt - Block rate. An estimate of the percentage of blocks a player registered while on the floor. Formula: (BLK * (TeamMin / 5)) / (Min * (OppFGA - OppThreePA))

B-PF, B/PF - Blocks to Personal Fouls Ratio. An indication of big men's "smarts" while on defense. Formula: Blk/PF.

Best: Texas (0.500:1)   Worst: Mississippi Valley State (0.035:1)   National Average: 0.198:1

Conf - Conference.

Cost per Win - The number of wins in a season divided by the team's men's basketball budget (obtained from the Office of Postsecondary Education. The data on this site is current as of the 2008-09 season, the most recent data available.

D-PPP - Points allowed per defensive possession. See Possessions.

Best: Kentucky (0.72)   Worst: New Orleans (1.259)   National Average: 0.9866

DReb%, Def Reb % - Defensive Rebound Percentage. See Reb%.

Best: Incarnate Word (86.0%)   Worst: Mississippi Valley State (53.2%)   National Average: 72.9%

eFG% - Effective Field Goal Percentage. Formula: FGM + (0.5 x 3PM))/FGA Learn more here.

Best: Notre Dame (63.4%)   Worst: Grambling (36.3%)   National Average: 49.4%

Efficiency, Eff - The NBA Efficiency Model, which attempts to reward key "good" stats and punish "bad" stats, all in one single statistical measurement. Formula: ((Pts + TReb + A + Stl + Blk) - ((FGA - FGM) + (FTA - FTM) + TO)) Learn more here.

National Leader: Luke Fischer, Marquette (27.0)   National Average: 4.610

EffPA - Effective Points Allowed. Normalized defense: defensive possessions per 40 minutes multiplied by points allowed per defensive possession.

Best: Kentucky (48.0)   Worst: Coppin State (95.0)   National Average: 66.80

EffPF - Effective Points For. Normalized offense: offensive possessions per 40 minutes multiplied by points per possession.

Best: Indiana (88.0)   Worst: Grambling (41.0)   National Average: 66.37

EffMgn, EffMargin - Efficiency Margin. The difference between two team's efficiency on a per-game basis, presented as a positive or negative number. Formula: (O-PPP*100 - D-PPP*100)

Eff/Pos - Efficiency per Possession. A per-game statistic that measures a player's efficiency (see Efficiency, above) divided by the number of possessions in which the player was on the floor. Formula: Efficiency / (Player Minutes/Total Minutes in Game) * Team Possessions).

F - Personal fouls (on statistics and performances pages).

Fls - Foul differential on scoreboard pages, presented as the team which had fewer fouls in the game, along with the margin. Sample: MOST (-1)

FG-A, FGM-A - Field goals made and attempted.

FGPct, FG% - Field goal percentage.

Floor, Floor % - Floor Percentage. Measures the percentage of offensive possessions in which there is at least one point scored.

Best: Notre Dame (51.2%)   Worst: Grambling (26.2%)   National Average: 38.8%

FTPct, FT% - Free throw percentage.

FPG - Fouls per game.

FT-A, FTM-A - Free throws made and attempted.

FTProd - Free Throw Production. An indication of a team's ability to get to the free throw line. Formula: (FTM / FGA)

Best: Kansas (41.6)   Worst: Nicholls State (13.7)   National Average: 25.9

FTRate - Free Throw Rate. Number of points scored from the free throw line, per possessions used. Learn more here.

Best: Kansas (0.277)   Worst: Nicholls State (0.096)   National Average: 0.183

FTRateDef - Free Throw Rate Defense. Number of opponents' points scored from the free throw line, per (defensive) possessions used. Learn more here.

Best: Wagner (0.112)   Worst: Northeastern (0.386)   National Average: 0.222

G - Games played.

L - Losses.

Last10 - Team record in its last 10 games.

Loc - Game location. Presented as H (home), A (away) or N (neutral).

M - Minutes played.

O-PPP - Offensive points per possession. See Possessions.

Best: Notre Dame (1.276)   Worst: Grambling (0.634)   National Average: 0.9804

O/D/T Rb - Offensive, defensive, and total rebounds.

OppeFG - Opponent's Effective Field Goal Percentage. See eFG%.

Best: Kentucky (30.4%)   Worst: Coppin State (54.1%)   National Average: 43.0%

OppFGPct - Opponent's Field Goal Percentage.

OR - Offensive rebounds.

OReb%, Off Reb % - Offensive Rebound Percentage. See Reb%.

Best: Houston Baptist (51.5%)   Worst: Marist (14.2%)   National Average: 32.1%

OppTR - Opponents' turnover rate. Measures the percentage of total defensive possessions that end in turnovers. Formula: Opp. TO/Opp. Poss

Best: West Virginia (32.0%)   Worst: Delaware (13.0%)   National Average: 19.2%

Pace - A somewhat arbitrary, color-coded label to indicate the number of possessions per game or the average number for a season. Oriented to the average number of possessions per game (69.9). Labels: Excruciating: 53 or fewer possessions, Slow: 54-60, Moderate: 61-73, Fast: 74-82, Very Fast: 83 and over.

PF - Personal fouls (in boxscores).

Play Pct, Play% - Play percentage. Dean Oliver's advanced formula for floor percentage, which omits offensive rebounds and is a more accurate measure of scoring "drives." Formula: [FG+0.4*FTA*(FG%*FG%+2*FG%*(1-FG%))]/(FGA+0.4*FTA+TO) Read more here.

PF - Points For (elsewhere).

Poss - Possessions. An approximation of the number of possessions a team receives per game or season, often shown rounded to the first decimal. Basketball State calculates possessions using the Pomeroy method. Formula: FGA-OR+TO+.42*FTA Learn more here.

Poss40, Pos/40 - Possessions per 40 minutes. Total number of season possessions, divided by 40.

Highest: Virginia Military Institute (80.3)   Lowest: Wyoming (57.5)   National Average: 67.66

PPWS - Points per Weighted Shot. Measures how efficiently a player translates field goal attempts and free throw attempts into points. Formula: PTS/(FGA + (0.475 x FTA)) Learn more here.

Best: Notre Dame (1.31)   Worst: Grambling (0.82)   National Average: 1.058

Pts/P - Points scored.

Reb - Rebounds. Rebound differential on scoreboard pages, presented as the team which led the game in rebounds, along with the margin. Sample: CITA (+1)

Reb Rate - Rebound Rate. Percentage of opponents' missed shots that were rebounded successfully. Formulas: Team OReb% = TmOReb / (TmOReb + OppDReb); Team DReb% = TmDReb/ (TmDReb + OppOReb); Team Reb% = (Team OReb% + Team DReb%)/2

Best: Houston Baptist (66.4%)   Worst: Mississippi Valley State (38.5%)   National Average: 52.5%

RPI - Ratings Percentage Index. The NCAA's formula to measure relative team strength. Learn more here.

Scoring Poss - Scoring possessions. The number of total possessions that resulted in a score of at least one point. Formula: FG+0.4*FTA*(FT%*FT%+2*FT%*(1-FT%))

SPG - Steals per game.

St, Stl - Steals.

Stl Rt - Steal rate. An estimate of the percentage of steals a player registered while on the floor. Formula: ((FGA + 0.44 * FTA + Turnovers) * (TeamMin / 5)) / (Min * (TeamFGA + 0.44 * TeamFTA + TeamTurnovers))

Strk - Team Current Streak. Presented as a letter (W or L, for wins or losses) and the number of consecutive games won or lost.

ThreePct, 3PT%, 3% - Three-point field goal percentage. On cheastheets, acronym also applies to three-point field goal defense.

TS%, True% - True Shooting Percentage. Similar to Effective Field Goal Percentage (eFG%), but also factors in free throws. Formula: Pts/(2*(FGA + (.44*FTA))) Learn more here.

Best: Notre Dame (66.0%)   Worst: Grambling (37.8%)   National Average: 52.6%

TO - Turnovers. Turnover differential on scoreboard pages, presented as the team which had fewer turnovers in the game, along with the margin. Sample: GMU (-1)

TO Rate, TO R - Turnover rate. Measures the percentage of total offensive possessions that end in turnovers. Formula: TO/Poss

Best: Cal Poly (10.3%)   Worst: Howard (26.1%)   National Average: 19.2%

TOF - Turnovers forced per game.

Highest: West Virginia (22.8)   Lowest: Delaware (8.4)   National Average: 13.09

TOPG - Turnovers per game.

TwoPct, 2FG%, 2% - Two-point field goal percentage. Only includes field goals attempted from inside the three-point arc. On cheatsheets, acronym also applies to two-point field goal defense.

Best: Notre Dame (64.7%)   Worst: Grambling (33.1%)   National Average: 47.5%

Usage %, Usg% - Usage percentage. An estimate of the percentage of team plays used by a player while on the floor. Formula: ((FGA + 0.44 * FTA + Turnovers) * (TeamMin / 5)) / (Min * (TeamFGA + 0.44 * TeamFTA + TeamTurnovers)) Read more here.

W - Wins.

X Win % - Dean Oliver's Expected Win Percentage. Formula: (PTS)^(16.5)/[PTS^(16.5) + PA^(16.5)]

2-A, 2P-A - Two-point field goals made and attempted.

3-A, 3P-A - Three-point field goals made and attempted.


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